2019: PS119 (South Sandwich arc & East Scotia ridge)

Location: South Sandwich arc, East Scotia ridge; Punta Arenas (Chile) – Port Stanley (Falkland, UK)
Date: April 13, 2019 — May 31, 2019
Funding: BMBF
Participants from our group: A. Diehl, S. Pereira
Summary: In the mid of April 2019 the research vessel Polarstern has steamed-off to its last expedition prior to the big MOSAIK project. The vessel set out to a seven-week lasting research expedition in the Scotia Sea. Aim of the expedition was to explore the sparsely known plate boundaries, the South Sandwich arc and the East Scotia ridge. The research program was designed manifold and included the registration of whale migration routes, mapping surveys at Saunders volcano, sediment sampling at the continental shelf off South Georgia, and the exploration and investigation of marine hydrothermal vents in intra-oceanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers. Despite a rough sea state during the expedition ROV QUEST 4000 (MARUM) could sample hydrothermal vents from the E2-segment of the East Scotia ridge, as well as the South Sandwich arc volcano Kemp Caldera. The sampled hydrothermal fluids and precipitates could not be more different. High temperature black smoker fluids (> 320 °C), which precipitate large sulfide chimneys when entering the ocean at the E2-segment, are in contrast to lower temperature white smoker vents (<230 °C), which are sometimes accompanied by the discharge of liquid sulfur in Kemp Caldera. Our investigations aim to put our samples into context of the few existing samples from the different working areas and evaluate whether these geologic systems have changed their dynamics or remained stable in terms of energy and chemistry. Furthermore, we examine the differences between these vents from intra-oceanic arc and back arc spreading environments, that represent two extreme types of venting.
Further informationen: https://www.marum.de/Forschung/PS119.html

Glacier at the coast of South Georgia Rock sample of solidified liquid sulfur from Kemp Caldera



2018: SO263 (Tonga-Rift)

Location: Tonga-Rift; Suva (Fiji) – Suva (Fiji)
Date: 1. Juni 2018 — 27. Juni 2018
Funding: BMBF
Participants from our group: W. Bach, A. Diehl, P. Monien, S. Sopke, A. Türke
Summary: Expedition SO263 with research vessel Sonne and ROV MARUM Quest 4000 was carried out from the sun-kissed islands of Fiji to investigate the volcanic, hydrothermal und tectonic history of the Tonga intra-oceanic arc and its back-arc spreading center. During the expedition several hydrothermal vent fields have been investigated at the Niua and Niuatahi arc volcanoes and at the back-arc volcano Maka. Our research agenda comprised of extensive sampling of volcanic rocks and the investigation of hydrothermal fluids, sulfides and chemosynthetic vent communities. The agenda was supplemented by CTD and MAPR investigations of plume dispersal in the water column. The chosen research area provides the opportunity to investigate the evolution of magmatic melts at convergent plate boundaries behind subduction zones. The associated hydrothermal systems are situated in different geologic environments and enable us to study the differences between vent fluids at intra-oceanic arcs and back-arc spreading centers. The implemented research agenda with a coupled investigation of volcanic rocks and hydrothermal processes enables us to profoundly learn about the relationship between magmatic activities and subsequent hydrothermal activities in all its facets.
Further information: https://www.marum.de/Entdecken/Logbuch-SONNE-SO263.html

Working at the IGT sampler Bubbling gas in a sample syringe'



2018: IODP Expedition 376 (Brothers Volcano Arc Flux)

Location: Brothers volcano, southern Kermadec Arc; Auckland (NZ) – Auckland (NZ)
Date: May 5, 2018 — July 5, 2018
Funding: IODP
Participants from our group: L. Schlicht
Summary: Deep-sea drilling of dacitic rocks that were heavily affected by hydrothermal alteration at the NW Caldera and Upper Cone sites of the Brothers volcano, southern Kermadec Arc. Investigations are used for deeper understanding of hydrothermal activity in arc settings, from petrological, geochemical, geophysical, and microbiological point of views.
Further information: https://iodp.tamu.edu/scienceops/expeditions/brothers_arc_flux.html

Sunrise onboard RV/DV Joides Resolution Shipboard sampling in the core lab



2018: M146 (Henry Seamount)

Location: Henry Seamount; Recife (Brazil) – Las Pal­mas (Gran Ca­na­ria, Spa­in)
Date: March 17, 2018 — April 16, 2018
Funding: DFG
Participants from our group: A. Klügel
Summary: The R/​V MET­EOR-cruise M146 will be car­ried out at Henry Seamount, an ex­tinct vol­cano loc­ated ca. 40 km south­east of El Hierro, Ca­nary Is­lands. The ob­ject­ive of this cruise is to dis­cover sites of hy­dro­thermal cir­cu­la­tion of sea­wa­ter, which is glob­ally im­port­ant for cool­ing of the litho­sphere, chem­ical ex­change between crust and ocean, and mar­ine eco­sys­tems. This cir­cu­la­tion re­quires base­ment out­crops that form path­ways through im­per­meable sed­i­ment. Data ac­quired dur­ing pre­vi­ous cruise M66/​1 show that Henry Seamount may provide such out­crops. Our meth­ods to find them in­clude 1) high-res­ol­u­tion map­ping by AUV; 2) high-res­ol­u­tion seis­mic re­flec­tion pro­fil­ing to sur­vey thick­ness and in­ternal struc­ture of sed­i­ment lay­ers on and around the seamount; 3) de­term­in­a­tion of local heat flows to de­tect heat sinks and sources; 4) TV-sled sur­veys; and 5) local sampling.
Further information: https://www.marum.de/en/Research/M146.html



2018: TN350 (Brothers volcano)

Location: Brothers volcano; Auckland (New Zealand) – Auckland (New Zealand)
Date: March 6, 2018 — March 26, 2018
Funding: BMBF
Participants from our group: A. Diehl
Summary: Cruise TN350 was set out in the course of the preparation of IODP expedition 376 “Brothers arc flux”. Aim of the expedition was to investigate active hydrothermal systems at Brothers caldera, to conduct heatflow measurements and to pre-explore potential drill sites for the upcoming IODP drilling at Brothers volcano. ROV Jason II, operated by the Woodshole Oceanographic Institution, was deployed to recover samples of hydrothermal fluids and precipitates. The fluid sampling was done with isobaric gas tight fluid samplers (IGT) and the focus was set on the analytics of dissolved volatiles in the hydrothermal fluids. During the expedition multiple samples from various vent sites at Brothers Caldera (NW Caldera site, Caldera Rim, Upper Cone, Lower Cone) were successfully sampled. The samples are used to comprehend existing datasets of hydrothermal fluids from Brothers volcano.
Further information: http://deeptow.whoi.edu/pdf/TN350BROTHERSCRUISEREPORT

ROV JASON II onboard RV Thomas G. Thompson Sample of a hydrothermal chimney found at Brothers volcano



2016/2017: SO253 (South Kermadec arc)

Location: South Kermadec arc; Noumea (New Caledonia) – Auckland (New Zealand)
Date: December 22, 2016 — January 21, 2017
Funding: BMBF
Participants from our group: W. Bach, A. Diehl, C. Hansen, S. Sopke, J. Thal, A. Türke
Summary: The research vessel Sonne visited four hydrothermally active volcanoes (Brothers Caldera, Haungaroa Volcano, Macauley Caldera, Rumble III) in the south Kermadec arc, during expedition SO253. The expedition was set out to investigate how fast hydrothermal plumes disperse in the ocean as hydrothermal solutions mix with seawater. A part of the expedition work was to investigate microbial activities and chemosynthetic communities associated with hydrothermal vents. Furthermore, the main objective was to characterize the physical and chemical circumstances under which the hydrothermal fluids and the associated chemosynthetic communities form. With the help of ROV Quest 4000 (MARUM) we sampled various hydrothermal fluids, hydrothermal precipitates formed from these fluids and volcanic rocks that provided the chemical components for these fluids and precipitates. The samples are used to gain a process understanding of which particular processes are responsible for the unique character of some arc hydrothermal fluids. The investigations of rocks and fluids provide a basis to evaluate how volcanic degassing in the subsurface and phase separation of rising fluids influence the chemical composition of arc hydrothermal solutions.
Further information: http://geschichten.ptj.de/so253#74871

RV Sonne at the port of Noumea (New Caledonia) ROV Quest 4000 onboard RV Sonne



2016: IODP Expedition 366 (Mariana Convergent Margin & South Chamorro Seamount)

Location: Yinazao, Asùt Tesoru, and Fantangisña mud volcanoes in the Mariana forearc; Guam (USA) – Hong Kong (People’s Republic of China)
Date: December 08, 2016 — Februar 07, 2017
Funding: IODP
Participants from our group: E. Albers
Summary: This expedition to the Mariana forearc in the western Pacific Ocean had the aim to investigate the geochemistry, tectonics, and biology in an active subduction zone. We cored the summits and flanks of three serpentinite mud volcanoes - namely the Yinazao, Asùt Tesoru, and Fantangisña seamounts (formerly known as Blue Moon, Big Blue, and Celestial) - and sampled sediments, rocks, and fluids. These will provide insights into shallow subduction zone processes including, e.g., mass transports and geochemical cycling as well as spatio-temporal variability of subduction-related fluids and water–rock interactions.
Further information: https://iodp.tamu.edu/scienceops/expeditions/mariana_convergent_margin.html

JOIDES Drillcores with bluish serpentinite mud and serpentinised ultramafic mantle rock clasts



2016: PS101 / ARK XXX-3 (Karasik Seamount)

Location: Karasik seamount in the Arctic Ocean located at 87°N, 61°E; Tromsø (Norway) – Bremerhaven (Germany)
Date: September 9, 2016 — October 23, 2016
Funding: 
Participants from our group: E. Albers, A. Diehl
Summary: The destination of this expedition was the region of the more than 4000 m high Karasik seamount, which is one of the highest seamounts of the Arctic Ocean. Extensive ocean floor mapping in the course of this cruise revealed Karasik to be part of the Langseth Ridge that meets the ultraslow spreading Gakkel Ridge at about 87°N and 61°E. Our working group is particularly interested in the origin of the Karasik seamount and the Langseth Ridge. Systematic usage of a dredge and gravity corer brought volcanic and plutonic rock samples to deck, as well as rocks that had their origin in or were altered by hydrothermal activity. Together with seafloor image data acquired by OFOS (Ocean Floor Observation System) and NUI (Nereid Under Ice, an hybrid ROV), we could gain valuable insights into the regional geology. A second focus was on studying a nearby active hydrothermal system in the Gakkel Ridge spreading centre. Here, we sampled fresh and hydrothermally altered rocks and sediments from the seafloor, and took water and particle samples from the hydrothermal plume. Images of inactive hydrothermal vents and seepage sites nearby the presumed location of hydrothermal fluid discharge were provided by OFOS.
Further information: http://expedition.awi.de/expedition/PS101

Polarstern Arctic night shift with successful dredge employment



2015: Oman Ophiolite fieldtrip

Location: Oman Ophiolite Complex (northern Oman)

Date: February 9, 2015 — Februar 22, 2015
Funding: DFG
Participants from our group: W. Bach, B. Bieseler, A. Diehl, D. Fußmann, K. Los, P. Monien
Summary: ...



2014: PS86 / ARK XXIII-3 (Aurora Seamount)

Location: Aurora sea mount in the Arctic Ocean at 82°N, 6°W; Tromsø (Norway) - Tromsø (Norway)
Date: July 5, 2014 — August 3, 2014
Funding: 
Participants from our group: A. Türke, A. Diehl
Summary: The cruise to the Aurora mount aimed at studying hydrothermal activity in the deep Arctic. The Aurora mount is located at the western edge of the ultraslow spreading Gakkel Ridge and is a volcanic structure in 3800 m water depth, elevated by 400 m from the surrounding seafloor. Hot fluids venting from the mount produce a hydrothermal plume, which was sampled intensively for geochemical (dissolved trace metals, methane) and microbiological studies. Furthermore, mapping of the seafloor was carried out by several OFOS (Ocean Floor Observatory System) dives, which were able to obtain several high resolution images of hydrothermal vents.

Polarstern Group picture



2013: Fieldwork at ConsMurch Antimony and Gold Mine, Murchison, South Africa

Location: Murchison, South Africa
Date: Mai 5, 2013 — Mai 17, 2013
Funding: BGR
Participants from our group: N. Blaauwbroek
Summary: The primary goal of the fieldwork was to collect samples to support the PhD research of N. Blaauwbroek, which focuses on the geochemical point of view of the antimony mineralization of the Murchison Greenstone Belt (2.97 Ga), South Africa. The antimony enrichment, mainly found as stibnite (Sb2S3), is focused along the so-called “Antimony Line (AL)” in quartz-carbonate veins. The carbonization of the AL represents a structural and geochemical overprint of the metagranodiorite and metakomatite found along the AL. The close spatial correlation of felsic and ultramafic rocks has been explained by a (back-)arc system from the Archaean, where the granodiorite intruded in the komatiite-rich continental crust by arc-volcanism. The antimony has been successfully mined for over 80 years. At the moment, ConsMurch is mining antimony and gold from four mines: Athens, Beta, Monarch and Gravelotte. The samples have been taken from different locations in relative position of the main ore-“reef”, which is where the highest amount of antimony is found. Major and trace element measurements have been performed with these carbonates, quartz and sulfides as well a stable isotope investigation. Geochemical modeling with the use of Geochemical Workbench will be used as an extra tool to explain this remarkable stibnite enrichment through the desired geochemical point of view. For this study, we closely cooperate with colleagues from the BGR and Freiberg University.

Athens Stibnite



2015: Oman Ophiolite fieldtrip

Location: Oman Ophiolite Complex (northern Oman)
Date: February 22, 2013 — March 13, 2013
Funding: DFG
Participants from our group: W. Bach, B. Bieseler, N. Jöns
Summary: During the field trip to the Oman Ophiolite Complex we sampled diopsidite and rodingites dikes in the mantle sections to detect metasomatic reactions and trace water rock interactions and learn about serpentinisation processes. Additional rocks from the exposed crustal cross-section in the Wadi Gideah were sampled to understand the conditions and history of fluid percolation through fast-spreading oceanic crust.



2012: MSM 20/5: North Pond

Location: Western flank of mid-Atlantic Ridge at 23°N, 46°W; Freeport (Bahamas) - St. John's (Canada)
Date: April 11, 2012 — Mai 10, 2012
Funding: DFG & BMBF
Participants from our group: W. Bach, J. Thal
Summary: The research cruise is part of a larger international effort to investigate the origin and nature of microbial communities within basaltic basement below an isolated sediment "pond" located on 7–8 Ma seafloor on the western flank of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 23°N. The cornerstone of the program is a transect of borehole “CORKed” microbial observatories being designed to allow long-term (decadal), manipulative, community-based experiments, observations, and sampling. The primary goal of the cruise is the deployment and recovery of seafloor instrument packages on each of the three borehole observatories post drilling and to sample borehole fluids. We also plan to conduct ROV-based sediment sampling and heat flow measurements as well as mapping and rock sampling up the basement outcrops surrounding North Pond. These operations are critical to the success of the larger program aimed at studying the basalt-hosted biosphere. These studies will document and elucidate microbial community composition harbored within a young ridge flank, assess the role of microbes in the weathering of oceanic crust, and quantify relations between crustal hydrogeology and microbial community development. We closely cooperate with colleagues from the US, who have secured complete funding for building all of the borehole and wellhead instruments.

MSM20/5MSM20/5



2011: IODP Expedition 336: North Pond Microbial Observatory

Location: Western flank of mid-Atlantic Ridge at 23°N, 46°W
Date: September 15, 2011 — November 16, 2011
Funding: IODP
Participants from our group: W. Bach
Summary: Installations of subseafloor observatories for monitoring fluid flow, geochemical exchange, and microbial activity were the primary focus of the cruise. Basalt and sediment cores were also retrieved and are currently studied in terms of linked microbial and geochemical processes.
Further information: http://iodp.tamu.edu/scienceops/sitesumm/336/

IODP 336IODP 336



2011: SO-216 "BAMBUS": Expedition to the eastern Manus Basin

Location: Eastern Manus Basin (Papua New Guinea); Townsville - Madang - Makassar
Date: June 14, 2011 — July 23, 2011
Funding: BMBF
Participants from our group: W. Bach, N. Jöns, E. Reeves, L. Shu, J. Thal
Summary: The expedition with RV SONNE to the eastern Manus Basin of Papua New Guinea is aimed at sampling fluids, rocks and biota from hydrothermal systems in a back-arc environment. Furthermore, detailed bathymetric mapping has been undertaken.
Further information: http://www.marum.de/Page11979.html

BAMBUS SO-216BAMBUS SO-216



2015: Oman Ophiolite fieldtrip

Location: Oman Ophiolite Complex (northern Oman)
Date: February 14, 2011 — February 25, 2011
Participants from our group: W. Bach, B. Bieseler, N. Jöns
Summary: During the field trip to the Oman Ophiolite Complex we sampled hydrothermally overprinted rocks from the exposed crustal cross-section to better understand the conditions and history of fluid through fast-spreading oceanic crust.

Oman Ophiolite field trip 2011Oman Ophiolite field trip 2011